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Trends of Antibacterial Resistance at the National Reference Laboratory in Cameroon: Comparison of the Situation between 2010 and 2017

Abstract : INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance represents a growing public health threat. One of the World Health Organization's strategic objectives is "strengthening knowledge through surveillance and research." Sub-Saharan African countries are still far from achieving this objective. We aimed to estimate and compare the prevalence of antibacterial resistance in 2010 and 2017 in Cameroon. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on all clinical specimens cultured in Centre Pasteur du Cameroun (CPC) in 2010 and 2017. Data were extracted from the CPC's laboratory data information system software and then managed and analyzed using R. Bacterial resistance rates were calculated in each year and compared using chi-square or Fisher's tests, and relative changes were calculated. Outcomes included acquired resistance (AR), WHO priority resistant pathogens, some specific resistances of clinical interest, and resistance patterns (multi, extensively, and pan drug resistances) for five selected pathogens. RESULTS: A total of 10,218 isolates were analyzed. The overall AR rate was 96.0% (95% CI: 95.4-96.6). Most of WHO priority bacterial resistance rates increased from 2010 to 2017. The most marked increases expressed as relative changes concerned imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter (6.2% vs. 21.6%, +248.4%, p = 0.02), imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.5% vs. 23.5%, +74.1%, p < 0.01), 3rd generation-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (23.8% vs. 40.4%, +65.8%, p < 10(-15)), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (27.3% vs. 46.0%, +68.6%, p < 0.002), fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella (3.9% vs. 9.5%, +142.9%, p = 0.03), and fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (32.6% vs. 54.0%, +65.8%, p < 10(-15)). For selected pathogens, global multidrug resistance was high in 2010 and 2017 (74.9% vs. 78.0% +4.1%, p = 0.01), intensively drug resistance rate was 5.8% (7.0% vs. 4.7%; p = 0.07), and no pan drug resistance has been identified. CONCLUSION: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics of clinical relevance in Cameroon was high and appeared to increase between 2010 and 2017. There is a need for regular surveillance of antibacterial resistance to inform public health strategies and empirically inform prescription practices.
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Submitted on : Monday, August 23, 2021 - 9:30:47 AM
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M. Massongo, L. Ngando, E. W. Pefura Yone, A. Nzouankeu, W. Mbanzouen, et al.. Trends of Antibacterial Resistance at the National Reference Laboratory in Cameroon: Comparison of the Situation between 2010 and 2017. BioMed Research International , Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2021, 2021, pp.9957112. ⟨10.1155/2021/9957112⟩. ⟨hal-03323830⟩

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