Elaboration et optimisation d'électrodes de piles PEMFC à très faible taux de platine par pulvérisation plasma

Abstract : This research work has been achieved in the context of the PIE CNRS AMELI-0Pt and AMEPlas and ANR AMADEUS projects and has gathered several entities around the Fuel Cell research: Dreux Agglomération and Agence Innovation Made In Dreux (MID), the French national research laboratories GREMI and LACCO and initially the company MHS Equipment. The project aims at developing and optimising fuel cell electrodes (anode and cathode) for PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) and SAMFC (Solide Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell) entirely by plasma in order to reach effective performances with ultra low platinum loadings or none at all. The project was divided into four stages: the study of the simultaneous growth of platinum and carbon co-sputtered by plasma, the optimum dispersion of a very small amount of catalysts, the replacement of platinum by a palladium based bimetallic alloy, and the direct deposition of the catalyst on the polymer membrane by plasma sputtering. By using an X-ray synchrotron beam light source (SOLEIL Synchrotron), in collaboration with the CRMD, the GISAXS study of co-sputtered Pt-C thin films has revealed the particular organisation of platinum inside this type of nanostructure. These Pt-C thin films offer excellent performances (20 kW.cm-2) with ultra low platinum amounts. Low loaded PdPt (5 %at Pt) electrodes offered good performances almost without platinum (12,5 kW.gPd-1 et 250 kW.gPt-1). The study of the activity of PdAu catalysts (plasma sputtered) on the glycerol electro-oxidation revealed the origin of the synergistic effects of palladium and gold in an alkaline medium. The direct plasma deposition of platinum associated or not with carbon deposition on membrane has been optimised. The performances of the plasma prepared CCM (Catalyst Coated Membrane) demonstrate the potential of this type of architecture.
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Mathieu Mougenot. Elaboration et optimisation d'électrodes de piles PEMFC à très faible taux de platine par pulvérisation plasma. Autre. Université d'Orléans, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011ORLE2026⟩. ⟨tel-00667739⟩



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