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Chronic Stress and Glucocorticoids: From Neuronal Plasticity to Neurodegeneration

Abstract : Stress and stress hormones, glucocorticoids (GCs), exert widespread actions in central nervous system, ranging from the regulation of gene transcription, cellular signaling, modulation of synaptic structure, and transmission and glial function to behavior. Their actions are mediated by glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors which are nuclear receptors/transcription factors. While GCs primarily act to maintain homeostasis by inducing physiological and behavioral adaptation, prolonged exposure to stress and elevated GC levels may result in neuro-and psychopathology. There is now ample evidence for cause-effect relationships between prolonged stress, elevated GC levels, and cognitive and mood disorders while the evidence for a link between chronic stress/GC and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases is growing. This brief review considers some of the cellular mechanisms through which stress and GC may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD and PD.
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Sheela Vyas, Ana João Rodrigues, Joana Margarida Silva, Francois Tronche, Osborne F X Almeida, et al.. Chronic Stress and Glucocorticoids: From Neuronal Plasticity to Neurodegeneration. Neural Plasticity, 2016, 2016, pp.6391686. ⟨10.1155/2016/6391686⟩. ⟨hal-01310709⟩

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