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Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Metal Neurotoxicity: A Focus on the Interactions of Metals with Synapse Structure and Function

Abstract : Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals and metalloids such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, or manganese is a global health concern affecting millions of people worldwide. Depending on the period of exposure over a lifetime, environmental metals can alter neurodevelopment, neurobehavior, and cognition and cause neurodegeneration. There is increasing evidence linking environmental exposure to metal contaminants to the etiology of neurological diseases in early life (e.g., autism spectrum disorder) or late life (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease). The known main molecular mechanisms of metal-induced toxicity in cells are the generation of reactive oxygen species, the interaction with sulfhydryl chemical groups in proteins (e.g., cysteine), and the competition of toxic metals with binding sites of essential metals (e.g., Fe, Cu, Zn). In neurons, these molecular interactions can alter the functions of neurotransmitter receptors, the cytoskeleton and scaffolding synaptic proteins, thereby disrupting synaptic structure and function. Loss of synaptic connectivity may precede more drastic alterations such as neurodegeneration. In this article, we will review the molecular mechanisms of metal-induced synaptic neurotoxicity.
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https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03342577
Contributor : Asuncion Carmona Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Friday, October 22, 2021 - 5:28:20 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, January 27, 2022 - 1:06:05 PM

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Asuncion Carmona, Stéphane Roudeau, Richard Ortega. Molecular Mechanisms of Environmental Metal Neurotoxicity: A Focus on the Interactions of Metals with Synapse Structure and Function. Toxics, MDPI, 2021, 9 (9), pp.198. ⟨10.3390/toxics9090198⟩. ⟨hal-03342577⟩

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