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Standardization of the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score in a French population

Abstract : The Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) has previously been standardized in thirteen countries on three continents, confirming its status of gold standard test to detect minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). In the meantime, performance has also been shown to vary with variables such as age, education, and barely sex. The present study aimed at standardizing the PHES in a French population. One hundred and ninety-six French healthy participants completed a French version of the paper-and-pencil PHES, involving five tests and six measures. Importantly, the balance was perfect between all levels of the three controlled factors, which were sex, age (seven decade-levels from 20-29 to 80-89 years), and education (two levels below or above 12 years of education). Raw measures were transformed to fit the normal distribution. ANOVAs on transformed variables showed no effect of sex, but an effect of age on all measures, and of education on five measures. Multiple or simple regressions were completed to build up normograms. Thorough analysis of variability within each test failed to find outliers that may bias the results. Comparison between French and seminal German data showed that they highly fitted though cultural and cognitive style specificities could be observed. This is the first study to standardize the PHES in a French population and to extensively explore the effects of sex, age and education using perfectly balanced samples. Subtle differences between countries of the same continent emphasize the need to build up normative data in each country to get accurate PHES in patients.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 22, 2021 - 11:53:12 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, January 27, 2022 - 3:26:48 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, December 23, 2021 - 6:33:58 PM


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Olivier Coubard, Kinga Ober, Marie Gaumet, Marika Urbanski, Jean-Noël Amato, et al.. Standardization of the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score in a French population. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2021, 16 (9), pp.e0257136. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0257136⟩. ⟨hal-03351378⟩



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